MOST COMMON DISEASED EYE DISEASES
There are many eye diseases. Young people most often go to a doctor with dry eye syndrome, inflammation and visual impairment. In old age, in addition to the aforementioned diseases, cataract, glaucoma and macula degeneration most often occur.
In order to increase patient awareness, we provide below information about the most common eye diseases.
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eye
A very common problem is inflammation of the mucous membrane. In this case, patients complain of eyes, redness, tearing and festering. Inflammation occurs suddenly and makes it difficult to lead a normal life. In adults, 70% of cases of inflammation are viruses.
There is no adequate treatment for such inflammations, but the relief condition helps cold compressors. Bacterial inflammation of the mucous membrane occurs in approximately 30% of cases. In children, inflammation of the mucous membrane is mainly of a bacterial nature, the eyes redden and fester strongly. In this case, the available antibiotics drops come to the rescue.
If there is a complaint indicating inflammation, first of all it is worth visiting the family doctor. In case of repeated problems, it is reasonable to consult an eye doctor.
INFLAMMATION OF THE AGE
An eye doctor is also often complained of redness. Such symptoms may indicate inflammation of the eyelid. As a rule, this leads to disturbances in the functioning of iron, which leads to the fact that they disappear due to the absence of visible eyes, which leads to malaise. With the addition of a bacterial infection, inflammation increases.
When inflammation of the eyelids helps massage, which activates their work. Inflammatory and chemical acid omega-3, which has a beneficial effect on the work of meibomian glands.
When blepharitis becomes chronic, it can accompany stronger eyelid inflammations, such as barley and chalazion. In this case, the cause of the inflamed node occurs. You can get rid of it with the help of ointments or surgery.
Nowadays, cataracts are one of the most common eye diseases. We are talking about clouding of the lens, as a result of which the visual acuity decreases, a person sees objects indistinctly, and their image begins to split in two.
Cataracts are of different types, so complaints may vary. A cataract mainly occurs in old age, as changes in metabolism occur in the lens of the eye. The size of the lens and its water content may also change. As a rule, we are talking about irreversible changes in the anatomy of the eye. This means that cataracts cannot be prevented.
Very rarely, but congenital cataracts are also found. It can also appear on the background of other diseases, with long medication and as a result of eye injuries.
Nowadays, the only way to treat cataracts is surgery. During the operation on the cornea, micro-incisions are made, through which turbid fragments are removed with the help of an ultrasound machine, and an artificial lens is inserted in their place. As a rule, the operation is painless, is performed under local anesthesia, is relatively short and gives a good result. The frequency of complications is 1: 10,000. Among the most frequent complications are intraocular inflammation or hemorrhage inside the eye, clouding of the posterior lens capsule. Opacification of the posterior capsule is quite common. You can fix the problem using a laser procedure.
Cataract surgery is paid for by the EHIF. Such operations are carried out in the largest clinics in Estonia.
Glaucoma is a chronic and very common eye disease. This is a disease that develops under the influence of several factors. This means that for its diagnosis several different painful abnormalities should appear. With glaucoma, intraocular pressure rises. In some forms of the disease, the pressure remains normal or even decreases. Normal eye pressure is 10-21 mm Hg. Art.
If this indicator rises, you should definitely find out the reasons. Basically, the problem is connected with the outflow of intraocular fluid, which for some reason are blocked and provoke an increase in pressure.
In the case of glaucoma, high intraocular pressure damages the optic nerve and layers of nerve fibers in the fiber. This can be visually determined at an appointment with an eye doctor. The initial stage of the disease can also be diagnosed using the GDX, OCT and HTR methods.
If about 60% of the nerve fibers are damaged, then a person has a violation of the visual field: misting, partial perception of the picture, loss of the visual field. In this case, the disease is in a developed phase.
With increased intraocular pressure and structural and functional changes, treatment should begin with drugs – eye drops, reducing pressure. Such treatment is permanent, sometimes it lasts a lifetime.
In some cases, laser treatment (SLT) can be performed in the outflow channels. If the methods mentioned above do not help, you can perform an operation in which the outflow channel is created under the mucous membrane. Nowadays there are different ways of treatment.
RISK FACTORS WITH GLAUCAMISE MAY BE READED:
The manifestation of glaucoma in family members or close relatives
Myopia, that is, myopia
Age over 50 years
Thin cornea (with thin cornea, intraocular pressure is higher)
Very high or low (especially at night) blood pressure
Diseases that may cause recurrent glaucoma (cataracts, diabetes, blood vessel disease)
It is worth noting that if glaucoma has already provoked damage to the nerves, it will not be possible to cure it, but thanks to adequate treatment, the disease can be kept under control.
Degeneration of the macula, or macula, is associated with metabolic disorders and appears in old age. As a result of the disease, structural changes occur in the area of the yellow spot – in the area of the eye responsible for visual acuity. When the macula degenerates, the retina may become thinner, changes in the pigment epithelium occur and slags accumulate.
RISK FACTORS IN THIS DISEASE ARE:
Age over 50 years
High blood pressure
Symptoms: decreased visual acuity, both in the distance and near. It is the central vision that is violated, a so-called black spot may appear before the eyes.
The disease has several forms. The first is a dry form, in which the structure of the yellow spot changes, but there is no fluid under the retina. The second form is wet. When it breaks down the pigment epithelium, and because of damage to the blood vessels between the layers of the retina and pigment epithelium fluid accumulates. This provokes the appearance of edema, new blood vessels are also formed, due to which bruises can appear in the retina and vitreous body.
In spite of the fact that nowadays degenerative changes are not yet cured, with changes it is recommended to take complexes of vitamins and minerals for the fundus and drugs that inhibit the development of the disease.
In the case of the wet form, special eye injections can be made to prevent the growth of new blood vessels and reduce fundus swelling. As a rule, one injection is not enough.
The doctor can give an assessment of the feasibility of treatment. Currently, there are many diagnostic tools (OCT, Spectralis) that accurately show structural damage and help plan treatment.
DESTRUCTION OF THE GLASS BODY
Often, patients complain about the appearance of flies, points and strings before their eyes. As a rule, they appear suddenly and move with the eyes. Best of all, they are visible on a white background and can be of different shapes. We are dealing with detached and freely moving cells of the vitreous body of the eye. From time to time they are in front of the visual axis, so a person begins to see them.
Such complaints are found in both young and old people. In older people, complaints may be associated with another disease – age-related detachment of the vitreous body, with the result that a thin membrane appears in front of your eyes and “pieces” begin to float before your eyes.
Flies, as a rule, is a relatively safe problem that does not require intervention. It is believed that these cells become smaller with age or people simply get used to them. But if suddenly a lot of black dots appear in front of your eyes, forming a partial veil in front of your eyes, and the symptom does not go away, you should immediately contact an eye doctor. In case of similar symptoms, we can talk about retinal detachment. This is a serious disease requiring rapid surgical intervention.