Proper nutrition. Carbohydrates
Losing weight is not easy. Especially in the realities of modern society, when everything and everything comes down to consumption and each seller considers it his duty to sell you something. And food is often something. However, if you manage to include a little thinking in your diet, everything will be fine. And that’s how to do it.
Many begin their journey to losing weight, completely cutting off all ties with food. And I will not discover America if I say that by doing so you only harm yourself. Another way is to calculate the calories, which is more correct, but you can consume 2,000 calories in different ways, and I will tell you how to do this more or less correctly.
The kilocalories we consume are taken from three sources:
proteins (4 kcal per 1 gram);
fats (9 kcal per 1 gram);
carbohydrates (4 kcal per 1 gram).
Already on the basis of this simple crib, you can see that a daily diet of 2,000 calories can both help and harm your health. In which case to help? If you follow the ratio of BZHU:
45-65% of calories from carbohydrates;
20-35% of calories from fat;
10-35% of calories from protein.
In this case, the body will receive all the micro and macro elements in the right doses and will not be overly saturated with any one kind of nutrients. Of course, such a diet may vary depending on gender, age, or other characteristics of the organism, but in its standard form, it looks that way.
But here it is not so simple. Carbohydrates, proteins and fats are found in all products, but not all products will be useful. And to understand this in more detail, first talk about carbohydrates.
It is pointless to consider carbohydrates from the point of view of chemistry and biology, since complex definitions and long formulas will not give any understanding to an ordinary person. Carbohydrates are a common name for substances called sugars. And carbohydrates are the main source of energy (calories) for our body. The main quality by which carbohydrates can be divided is the speed of their breakdown in our body, according to this parameter they are divided into:
simple (monosaccharides, carbohydrates with high glycemic index);
complex (polysaccharides, carbohydrates with low glycemic index).
Simple carbohydrates are quickly broken down in the body and thus give a strong insulin jump, which processes them into fat, and complex carbohydrates, because of their structure, break down longer by the body, thereby not causing an insulin jump, and give an even amount of energy for an extended period (3 -5 o’clock). It is desirable that fast carbohydrates do not make up more than 20-40% of the daily value. When feeding on such a system, the body simply will not be able to save fat and thus interfere with your goal.
Where to get simple and complex carbohydrates?
Simple carbohydrates are found in foods such as fruits, dairy products, sugar (pure carbohydrate), and honey. Complex carbohydrates are found in cereal products (cereals, durum macaroni, bread, flour),
potatoes, corn, and beans. Despite the fact that flour is a complex carbohydrate, processed (refined) products from it, such as baking, baking, etc., are simple carbohydrates. In addition to simple and complex carbohydrates, there are also dietary fibers (fiber), which have such a complex structure that they are not digested by our body. Dietary fiber should be an integral part of your diet, as they provide the digestive system.
Following these rules, you can make the right diet and, based on it, achieve the goal, if there is one. Even if your goal is to keep fit or just a healthy diet, these rules will help you stay in shape and lead a healthy lifestyle.
Carbohydrates in Food
Both simple and complex carbohydrates for the human body are what the sun is for plants and trees.
Simple carbohydrates include the following:
glucose (other names: grape sugar, dextrose). Located in many fruit and berry juices (first of all – grape);
fructose – found in fruits;
sucrose (glucose with fructose). 95% of it is refined sugar;
maltose (otherwise, malt sugar). We will find it in germinated cereal grains, tomatoes, as well as nectar and pollen of some plants;
lactose (otherwise – milk sugar). Located in dairy products;
galactose. It is a component of lactose.
Glucose is the main source of energy for any living organism. First of all, it is necessary for the brain and liver, as well as the heart, kidneys, muscles and other organs. It is glucose that is involved in the synthesis of glycogen, an energy reserve that the body stores in the liver and muscles and mobilizes when there is a sudden lack of glucose.
Almost all products containing simple carbohydrates
jam, jam, jams;
Simple carbohydrates are also called fast, because they are instantly absorbed by the body (at the same time glucose is absorbed the most) and immediately supply it with a certain amount of energy – due to the fact that they very quickly increase blood sugar levels.
However, almost immediately, with no less speed, the sugar level drops again – because the pancreas injects large portions of insulin into the blood, designed to remove sugar surplus from the circulatory system. For this reason, it is better not to eat too many sweets, replacing them with products containing complex carbohydrates – which do not provoke such a rapid jump in the sugar level.
What foods contain complex carbohydrates?
The most common representative of complex carbohydrates is starch. Thus, it can be said that complex carbohydrates are contained in all those products where there is starch – such as:
vegetables and fruits.
The list of complex carbohydrates also includes plant fibers (such as pectin and cellulose), which are not absorbed by the body and, for this reason, do not supply it with energy. However, these fibers increase the feeling of satiety and are necessary for good bowel performance.
Vegetable fibers are found in abundance in the skins of fruits, vegetables, legumes, grains and, in general, unprocessed products of plant origin. For example, 1 slice of white bread has only 0.8 grams of vegetable fiber, while in 1 piece of whole-wheat flour (black), we find 2.4 grams of such fibers.
Complex carbohydrates are also called long carbohydrates because they burn much slower than simple ones – thus being a constant source of glucose for blood. For example, brown rice releases about two calories per minute, while sugar, burning much faster, releases more than 30 calories per minute.
Complex carbohydrates are simpler in importance, as they do not cause a sharp rise in blood sugar and provide the body with energy for a longer period. All complex carbohydrates are first broken down to glucose, and only then absorbed by the body.
Sports nutrition and carbohydrates
The most popular high-carb sports supplement is a gainer. However, it should be borne in mind that most of the carbohydrates in the gel are sugar or other fast carbohydrates and, when taken even after exercise, can lead to the formation of fat. Thus, ordinary products are the best choice.
The ideal option would be to eat any dish with carbohydrates 2-4 hours before a workout and a small snack (for example, one banana) an hour before a workout.
Try to eat at least 30-50 grams of carbohydrates in the first two hours after exercise – to restore your muscles. For example, 50 grams of carbohydrates can be found in the following foods:
1 large banana;
2 pieces (60 grams) of bread;
1/2 loaf baguette;
1.5 cups (300 ml) of fruit juice;
600 ml of isotonic drink;
1 energy bar;
6 tablespoons (200 grams) of cooked pasta;
1/2 cup boiled rice;
3/4 liter skim milk.